Stela Shiroka - E-Approaches to Training in Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding

Zeitschrift für Beratungs- und Managementwissenschaften
Ausgabe 2018/01
ISSN 2312–5853

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Stela Shiroka 1

E-Approaches to Training in Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding *

 1Researcher & Project Coordinator at SYNYO GmbH, Research, Development, Advisory Vienna, Austria, www.synyo.com
Korrespondenz über diesen Artikel ist zu richten an Stela Shiroka
E-mail: stela.shiroka@synyo.com

*This project received funding from the European Unions´s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant 700583, with the name PeaceTraining.eu. The content of this article does not reflect the official opinion of the European Union. Responsibility for the information and views expressed in the article lies entirely with the authors.

Abstract
Online technologies enabling distance (online) learning and training have been around and continuously developing for several decades now. While many training fields have embraced and benefited from the recent technological developments, the conflict prevention and peacebuilding (CPPB) field seems also to have progressed in applying some of existing approaches to increase the quality of training practitioners and enable other players in the ecosystem to self-learn about processes, operations and concepts.
This paper observes the state-of-art of ICT approaches to training and learning in the conflict prevention and peacebuilding field and closely related areas, putting together a collection of organisations and ways of application of ICT to train practitioners and interest groups. The types of applications are grouped in several categories, seeking to create a typology of existing approaches but also leading to understanding the gaps and needs for new developments in the field.


Zusammenfassung
Bereits seit einigen Jahrzehnten, seit der Entwicklung einer entsprechenden Onlinetechnologie, sind (Online-)Fernstudien und Ferntrainings entstanden und wurden verfeinert. Während viele Arten von Trainings die jüngsten technologischen Entwicklungen gut für sich genützt und davon profitiert haben, wurden einige der existierenden Möglichkeiten auch für Konfliktprävention und Friedensförderung (CPPB) eingesetzt, um die Qualität der Trainings zu verbessern. Auch für andere Interessierte wurden Möglichkeiten geschaffen, sich eigenständig Prozesse, Vorgangsweisen und Konzepte aneignen zu können.
Dieser Beitrag widmet sich dem „state of the art“ der ICT- Ansätze für Trainings und Informationen über Konfliktprävention, Friedensförderung und verwandter Gebiete und bietet eine Sammlung von Organisationen und Zugängen der ICT zur Schulung von Praktikerinnen und Praktikern und Interessierten. Die Angebote werden mit jener Absicht kategorisiert, eine Typologie der existierenden Ansätze zu erschaffen sowie Mängel und Entwicklungsbedarf auf diesem Gebiet herauszuarbeiten.

Keywords: eLearning; ICT; Conflic

1. Introduction

As information and communication technologies and approaches to eLearning continue to evolve, so too do the opportunities to integrate or use eLearning methods and approaches to improve the conflict prevention and peacebuilding (CPPB) training and preparation of staff and personnel for working in the field.
Though eLearning approaches have now been around for more than three decades, recent years have seen an exponential growth in innovation and development of technologies that are being applied to learning and capacity development, opening new frontiers for the advancement of CPPB training. Particularly from the early 2000s eLearning and e-approaches had already begun to enter the CPPB training field. Today, utilization of eLearning courses, training and platforms can be seen at the European institutional level (e.g. EEAS), in international organisations (UN, OSCE etc.) and in the NGO and private sectors.
Yet, the full potential of a rapidly developing market of technological advancements is not captured by the field of CPPB training and most of existing approaches observed today exist in CPPB-related fields such as humanitarian affairs, field security, cyber security etc.
The aim of this paper is to present an overview of existing approaches to training and learning in CPPB and closely related fields and to create a typology of existing approaches: 1) Online courses offered by deploying organisations exclusively for deployed staff (pre-, post or during deployment) 2) Free online courses offered for a wider public as a self-learning tool 3) payed courses offered by independent providers for practitioners and interested professionals alike.
Besides classical training and learning courses, a wide range of ICT approaches with a significance to training can be observed, including: 1) Wikis and knowledge hubs 2) Interactive Maps 3) Peace Indexes 4) Serious Games and Simulations. Whether applied as a mixed method in blended learning (e.g. games and simulations) or used to support fully online distance-learning to help deployed CPPB staff to acquire a better understanding of the field they operate in, these tools feature outstanding potential for the field in need of further exploration.
Ultimately, the paper presents some of the biggest current web rosters of courses and training providers on CPPB and related fields that have the potential to increase the connections and outreach between training seekers and the training providers, thus enhancing the chances for improving the quality of trainings.

2. Online courses for mission staff

This category of courses includes eLearning options for practitioners applied by the organisations deploying them. The trainings are mainly offered in CPPB-related areas (e.g. Security Awareness in the Field). Some of these courses are delivered completely online while other approaches use a Learning Management System (LMS) as a blended method to support physical training.
European Security and Defence College (ESDC) e-learning (IDL/ILIAS): ILIAS is the eLearning system used by the European Security and Defence College. The ILIAS acts as a classical LMS enabling users to access materials and interact with fellow course participants online prior to and after completion of the course, as a supplement to physical training. It represents a form of blended-learning combining both online and on-site learning. Registering a profile on the platform is open to everyone. As a registered user one can see the list of members that are currently online, access basic information and weblinks on CSDP missions and policy frameworks. Yet to fully register for courses, access course materials and discussion boards users need the password provided from the course organizer as participation is fixed by nominations from all national nominators. The eLearning functionalities of ILIAS are thus only open to CSDP mission staff and not to a general public.
European External Action Service – Security E-learning: The EEAs has a dedicated online module which provides three online courses: BASE (Basic Awareness in Security – offered for staff and family members), SAFE (Security Awareness in Fragile Environment) and eHEST on high risk areas. Registration with an EU or EEAS account provides users automatic access while external email accounts require validation in order to acquire access to the materials. The courses are supported by Moodle, a classical LMS tool and also include the option of online certification upon completion. All the training is completed online so these courses represent a standard fully-online course.
United Nations Department for Safety and Security: Similar to the EEAS, the UN Department of Safety & Security offers fully online courses on Security Awareness, Security in the Field and Information Security. The courses are mandatory for staff members using ICT (information security courses) or for field missions staff (Security in the Field). The modules are also developed by an LMS software including computer-based assessment and certification upon completion.
United Nations System Staff College: The UN System Staff College, an institution dedicated specifically to training UN Staff, also runs a platform with fully online learning modules in many areas including Safety & Security and Sustaining Peace. The online modules are also supported by Moodle (LMS), integrate computer-based assessment and enrollment is only open to staff members.

3. Self-learning free online courses

Other courses relevant for field practitioners are offered by organisations involved in the CPPB programmes and also training institutions with a free access to the wide public. Although the knowledge conveyed by these online modules is primarily targeted to CPPB practitioners, the open nature can have an impact also for closely related audiences such as students or young professionals aiming to work in CPPB fields, or to so-called local peacebuilders that support the work of deployed staff.
ENTRi eLearning: The Europe’s New Training Initiative for Civilian Crisis Management (ENTRi) offers two eLearning courses on Stress Management and Intercultural Competence. The course on Stress Management by the Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF) is developed in a website structure, enabling fast navigation through the lessons which are based on texts, videos and infographics. At the end of the materials a short quiz and a list of downloadable materials are offered. The Inter-Cultural Competence course developed by ENTRi, the Centre for European Perspective (CEP) and MORE EUROPE uses a more complex tool (Lecturio) which includes more quizzes and a linear navigation through the lessons. Both courses involve traditional eLearning technologies, lacking any sort of collaboration or interaction between participants.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Global eLearning: The Global eLearning of UNODC is a programme following its CBT (Computer based Training) forerunner that offers open courses from a wide spectrum of topics such as human trafficking, gender issues, human rights, risk management etc. The courses are built on traditional modules such as videos or text files and are open to the public, however without assessment and certification options.
United Nations Women Training: Similarly, the Training Centre of the United Nations Women, the UN entity for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women, runs an eLearning module which offers training courses on gender related issues open to public registrations. The courses are offered in three categories: as self-paced, scheduled or customized. An additional offering of the online training platform are two communities of practice open for the public to join. Some of the training courses can be compulsory for UN staff the main objective of the platform is however offering self-learning to the wider public.
European Commission and United Nations Development Programme Partnership on Electoral Assistance: This is another eLearning module run by the partnership of the EC and UNDP offering fully online courses open to the public and with integrated assessment and certification methods.
Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe /Office of Democratic Institutions and Human Rights: Other online courses on electoral assistance for electoral observers are offered by OSCE/ODIHR on a Moodle (LMS) supported system as self-paced traditional learning. The courses are tailored for OSCE/ODIHR election observation missions staff; however, their contents are open to any interested professional as a self-learning tool.
Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) – International Security Sector Advisory Team (ISSAT) E-Learning: The ISSAT team at DCAF has developed several short duration and self-paced traditional online courses that seek to enable self-learning for practitioners working on or interested in Security Sector Reform (SSR) and closely related topics. Upon completion of the assessment part, certificates are obtained. The overall pool of registered users on the module is described as a “community of practice” on SSR.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and United Nations Funds International Children’s Emergency Fund: UNDOC and UNICEF offer a single self-paced traditional online course on “Justice in Matters involving Child Victims”. The course itself is described as an online self-learning tool available to any interested professional upon registration.
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): Another single course on “International Humanitarian Law” is offered by ICRC as free self-learning tool in a self-paced manner. The overall materials are directly accessible online without the requirement to create a log in profile. Assessment tools or any sort of participant interaction also not provided, making the course a standard slide-share module.
United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR): As the main training body of the UN, UNITAR covers the whole range of training options from traditional to face-to-face training, to blended forms, to fully online courses in self-paced of collaborative and also MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). The reason for grouping it under this category is that besides having a strictly practitioner audience, many of the trainings are also in free self-paced format as self-learning tools (e.g. Conflict Series courses). UNITAR represents the biggest collection of online courses and training options for CPPB practitioners, integrating novel methods with an increased potential to training such as MOOCs.

4. Payed online courses for practitioners and interest groups

Addressing the not-so-complete offering in free courses providing grounded training on CPPB, a number of privately-owned/for-profit initiatives, offer payed courses addressing practitioners working for major deploying organisations in the field of CPPB or students and young professional willing to specialise in the field. Considering the high registration costs, these courses integrated novel methods and technologies that enable participants make the most out of the online learning.
United States Institute for Peace (USIP): offers a series of payed fully-online collaborative courses covering different CPPB aspects. All online courses have predefined timeframes, are usually facilitated by more the two instructors and involve other guest experts to whom participants can interact through a forum, web conferencing tools and other interactive modules.
(UN-mandated) University of Peace (UPEACE): UN mandated UPEACE also offers payed courses conducted fully online in a virtual interactive classroom. The courses have a six or nine-week duration and can be taken either as part of the UPEACE academic programmes or by practitioners. Many of the courses are also strictly dedicated to practitioners such as “Human Rights for Peacekeepers”.
Peace Operations Training Institute (POTI): Courses for UN peacekeepers offered by POTI can also be taken in a traditional online format which includes purchase of the textbooks and video materials. Besides English, the courses are also available in Spanish, French, Arabic and Portuguese. They do not involve any assessment or certification option and can be best described as CBT.
Tech Change: is a social enterprise that offers online training on the implementation and efficient use of technology on issues and activities such as public health, emergency response, monitoring and evaluation etc. Some of its courses are available for free in a self-paced format. Others such as the “Technology for Conflict Management and Peacebuilding” have fixed starting and ending dates (instructor-paced) and offer several interactive and collaboration modules. Besides the fixed syllabus, courses feature live interactive expert presentations with practitioners and other stakeholders. The training methodology also includes additional innovative methods such as simulations and projects that can be described as novelty in the field.

5. Learning- and training-related ICT tools

Besides the classical formal online training and learning approaches in CPPB described so far, this section looks deeper into ICT tools existent in the CPPB context that have a relation to the development of knowledge and improved field understanding, and which can be utilised in conjunction with training. These tools involve information on the specific conflict-torn areas, lessons identified in the field, and resources including analysis, toolkits, handbooks and key publications in the field of CPPB.

5.1. Wikis and Knowledge Hubs

Online Knowledge Hubs can be any kind of technologies featuring traditional tools representative of older web versions (Wikis/Web 1.0) to more interactive tools that enable participant collaboration and enrichment of information (Web 2.0). Some older versions of such technologies also exist on CPPB, while more interactive spaces have been developed in closely related areas, holding a great significance on CPPB.
UN Peacemaker: was developed by the United Nations Department of Political Affairs and is dedicated to peacemaking professionals but also to any interested professional. It is described as an online mediation support tool that offers a freely accessible and extended database of peace agreements, guidance material and information in UN’s mediation support services.
Peace Insight on Conflict: is published by Peace Direct and contains extensive information on 45 conflict areas by more than 1600 local peacebuilding organizations.
Eldis: is a knowledge hub aggregating knowledge on a myriad of global issues among which peace and security. The knowledge is categorized on topics and countries and a blog module is also available.
Global Issues: is a crowd-sourced hub relaying news and materials on global issues seeking to provide an alternative to mainstream media.
Humanitarian Response: provides information on humanitarian support operations and a long directory of support materials and toolboxes.
Peace and Collaborative Development Network: involves a large international community of more than 37000 members and lists crowd-sourced information on events, training, knowledge etc.
Professionals in Humanitarian Assistance and Protection (PHAP): provides online learning sessions, knowledge materials, calendars of events and trainings on humanitarian assistance.
DEVEX: is a massive online community of experts and organisations working on development containing organisations’, experts’ and jobs’ directories. Although the platform is not directly related to CPPB together with the above mentioned PHAP, both serve as very good examples of technologies in need for development in strictly CPPB topics.

5.2. Interactive Maps

Interactive maps with a crowd-sourced feature are currently on the rise. One of the pioneering providers for this field is the India-based social enterprise Ushahidi. They help field practitioners acquire a better understanding of the conflict zones and types while also engaging the community. Some examples of such approaches are listed as follows:
Peacebuilding Map in Nigeria: is a crowd-sourced interactive map that provides information to local peacebuilders on conflict risks in Nigeria. Categories of entries include insecure situations, human rights violations, collective violence, economic pressure etc.
Ghana Conflict Map: is also a crown-sourced map providing information on the conflict areas in Ghana.
Orthodox Peace Fellowship – Interactive Conflict Map: provides recent news updates on developments or casualties in different conflict zones.
KAICIID Peace Map: is a collection of organisations active in interreligious and intercultural dialogue and also showing connection among organisations working together.
 Build Peace Database: is a collection of peacebuilding projects that use technology or have a technological component.
Similar maps and initiatives include: Hate Speech Database; Poverty Maps; Map Server; Flood map; Cyprus Community Media; Digital Globe.

5.3. Peace Indexes

Peace indexes are additional tools that help field practitioners to better understand the nature and intensity of conflict in the area they are deployed or working on. Some attempts to measure peace and conflict aspects and making them available through ICT include the following: Global Peace Index; Humanitarian Data Index; Social Cohesion and Reconciliation Index; Social Peace Index (Peace & Development Index)

5.4. Serious Games and Simulations

Games and simulations are increasingly being stressed for their significance to learning and training. In 2014 the United Nationals Alliance of Civilisations (UNAOC) and United Nations Development Programme, launched the PeaceApp competition to promote digital games and gamified apps as ‘venues for cultural dialogue and conflict management’. The winners of the competition include a series of games designs – some of which yet under development – for application primarily for peace education but also involving advanced levels and practitioners training. Some of the games and simulations with a relevance to practitioners include:
Mission Zhobia: is one of the most recent contributions to this field. It brings the player to an imaginary conflict-torn country on a mission to bring peace and develop the rule of law.
Battle4Humanity: is a game developed by Search for Common Ground which seeks to inspire young people to become local peacebuilders. The game is designed in three missions, first taking the players in a humanisation journey in learning to respect diversity, then to becoming a peacebuilder, and finally in taking transformative action in conflict prevention and resolution in their society.
The Peacemaker: is a simulation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, letting the players act as the Prime Minister of one of the countries or as a media professional using real news footage.
Minecraft: is developed by the Games for Peace and is also related to Israel-Palestine conflict. The games consist on joint sessions of playing in a virtual environment.
Peace Park: inspired by Minecraft, this game seeks to implement the practice in the Caucasus setting by challenging players to restore peace in a communal park, by understanding visitors’ interests and making wise decisions. The game was developed by ELVA, a social enterprise which among others produces the Social Peace Index.
Senaryon: is an online simulation tool developed by PlanPolitik that allows players to act as political decision-makers and mediators to understand the high complexity and challenges of political negotiations.
People Power: is a game on civil resistance simulating a scenario in which the player is the leader of a popular movement fighting against tough adversaries who control the police, the army and bureaucracy and the media.

6. Web rosters of training providers and courses

Another type of ICT-based support for CPPB training has been the rise of web rosters that include course calendars and provider directories on CPPB and related fields. These online tools help training seekers find courses tailored to their needs and requirements, allow practitioners to share materials and experiences and, for some, facilitate communities of practice. While not themselves e-approaches or ICT technologies used directly in the delivery or implementation of training, web rosters are tools that contribute both to formal and informal web-based learning and are part of the improving architecture surrounding the provision of CPPB training in the field. One of the primary objectives of the PeaceTraining.eu project is the creation of an online hub that among knowledge materials, offers roosters of trainers, training organisations and courses, addressing the gaps and needs identified in the initial working stages of the PeaceTraining.eu project. With the attempt to build recommendations on modules and features for the PeaceTraining.eu web platform, this section provides a short review of some of the existing roosters of training courses in the CPPB field and related areas.

6.1. Goalkeeper

The Goalkeeper platform is run by the European External Action Service. The platform is exclusively dedicated to training organizations who provide ESDC courses tailored for CSDP missions. Of the four features of the Goalkeeper platform, the Schoolmaster, Registrar, Headhunter and Governor, the Schoolmaster is the rooster for different types of courses and different providers. Recently, the directory has been enriched by allowing entries from Master programmes strictly related to CPPB – such as International Peacebuilding, Security and Development by the National University of Ireland Maynooth – that might also be of interest for practitioners.
The course directory of the Schoolmaster directory allows advanced searching options including searching by keyword, course venue, course topics, course title, course status, date (from – to), training institutions, training audience, network and type of course (differentiating among: advanced/specialized training; basic training/orientation course; In-mission training; pre-deployment training and pre-posting training).

6.2. ENTRi

A similar but much more specialised information source for training-seekers in the European context is the ENTRi website (Europe’s New Training Initiative for Interactive Civilian Crisis Management). As a major network of training organizations in the European CPPB training landscape, ENTRi’s website provides information on training courses provided by member organisations in its network.

6.3. Reliefweb

Reliefweb is an online platform primarily dedicated to humanitarian affairs covering all world regions. Besides directories of topics, materials, organizations, jobs etc. the platform also provides a space for advertising and searching for training on humanitarian programmes. More than 1500 organizations use the hub for listing their trainings which can be filtered by type, training category, format (on-site; on-line), cost, theme, country, region, organization, organization type, language; registration date, as well as start and end dates. The concept of “training” in this context is rather broad by including also webinars, discussions, conferences etc. Besides the humanitarian context, many entries in the roster are also strongly related to CPPB.

6.4. IDDRTG Training Calendar

The Integrated Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Training Group (IDDRTG) is another course calendar platform run by a consortium of international organisations and training institutes for sharing information and training materials based on the United Nation’s DDR standards.
One of its main modules, IDDRTG trainings, is composed of a course calendar showing the timelines of the listed courses and a list sorting from the closest upcoming ones. The calendar features dates and basic information on offered courses, however not allowing selection or matchmaking options.

7. Concluding remarks

Presenting the state-of art of approaches applied to training and learning in the CPPB field sought to lead to recommendations on future research and developments in this area. In general terms, the followings can be concluded:

  • Increased research shall be dedicated to emerging online tools such as games and simulations investigating their potentials to training in CPPB. Research should primarily investigate which of the emerging or already well-established ICT tools can have a great impact to training and in which ways these tools can be implemented in the CPPB training context.
  • Online course providers should work towards the development of new online modules featuring more interactive options that allow collaboration among participants and course instructors/trainers.
  • Free online courses offering online collaboration spaces such as MOOCs reach wider audiences and can thus have multiplier effects on other audiences related to practitioners such as local peacebuilders, students etc.
  • The creation of an online platform providing roosters of experts, training providers as well as knowledge materials supporting trainers and training seekers is very adequate to the needs of the field. The currently under development PeaceTraining.eu web platform, shall address these needs by integrating filtering, matchmaking and interactive features to enable platform users to navigate through the information and find courses and materials tailored to their needs.

Weblinks

Battle4Humanity: https://www.battle4humanity.com/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Build Peace Database: http://www.buildpeacedatabase.org/data/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Cyprus Community Media: http://www.cypruscommunitymedia.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

DEVEX: https://www.devex.com/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Digital Globe: http://www.digitalglobe.com/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Eldis: http://www.eldis.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

ENTRi eLearning
http://www.entriforccm.eu/e-learning.html
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

European Commission and United Nations Development Programme Partnership on Electoral Assistance http://www.ec-undp-electoralassistance.org/e-learning/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

European Security and Defence College eLearning (IDL/ILIAS): https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/eeas/security-e-learnings/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

European External Action Service – Security eLearning: https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/eeas/security-e-learnings/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Flood map: http://www.floodmap.net/,
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) – International Security Sector Advisory Team (ISSAT) E-Learning: https://issat.dcaf.ch/Learn/E-Learning/Introduction-to-Security-Sector-Reform
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Ghana Conflict Map: http://conflictmap.mint.gov.gh/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Global Issues: http://www.globalissues.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Global Peace Index: http://visionofhumanity.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Goalkeeper: https://goalkeeper.eeas.europa.eu/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Hate Speech Database: https://www.hatebase.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Humanitarian Data Index: https://data.humdata.org/dataset/human-development-index-hdi
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Humanitarian Response: https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

IDDRTG training calendar: http://www.iddrtg.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): https://www.icrc.org/en/document/basic-rules-and-principles-ihl
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

KAICIID Peace Map: http://peacemap.kaiciid.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Map Server: http://www.mapserver.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Minecraft: https://minecraft.net/en-us/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Mission Zhobia: https://www.missionzhobia.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe /Office of Democratic Institutions and Human Rights https://www.odihrobserver.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Orthodox Peace Fellowship – Interactive Conflict Map: http://incommunion.org/interactive-conflict-map/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Peace and Collaborative Development Network: https://pcdnetwork.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Peace App Competition: https://www.unaoc.org/peaceapp-blog/peaceapp-winners-announced/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Peacebuilding Map in Nigeria: http://www.p4p-nigerdelta.org/peace-building-map
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Peace Insight on Conflict: https://www.peaceinsight.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Peace Operations Training Institute (POTI): https://www.peaceopstraining.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Peace Park: http://peacepark.elva.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

People Power: http://www.peoplepowergame.com/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Poverty Maps: https://www.globalmapaid.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Professionals in Humanitarian Assistance and Protection (PHAP): https://phap.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Reliefweb: https://reliefweb.int/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Senaryon: http://senaryon.com/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Social Cohesion and Reconciliation Index: http://scoreforpeace.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Social Peace Index (Peace & Development Index): https://elva.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Tech Change: https://www.techchange.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

The Peacemaker: http://www.peacemakergame.com/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

United Nations Department for Safety and Security: https://training.dss.un.org/course
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Global eLearning: https://www.unodc.org/elearning/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and United Nations Funds International Children’s Emergency Fund http://www.unodc.org/justice-child-victims/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR): http://unitar.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

United Nations Peacemaker: https://peacemaker.un.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

United Nations System Staff College: https://www.unssc.org/courses/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

United Nations Women Training: https://trainingcentre.unwomen.org/portal/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

United States Institute for Peace (USIP): https://www.usip.org/education-training/courses?timing=0
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

University of Peace (UPEACE): http://upeace.org/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Ushahidi: https://www.ushahidi.com/
Retrieved: May 15, 2018.

Eingegangen: 15.05. 2018
Peer Review: 25.05. 2018
Angenommen: 30.05. 2018

Authors

Diesen Artikel zitieren als: Shiroka S. (2018). E-Approaches to Training in Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding. Zeitschrift für Beratungs- und Managementwissenschaften, 4, 72-79

 

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